Patulin Production In Apples

The patulin quantity detected in apple products is generally taken as a measured value for the quality of the apples used for the food production. Patulin can be contained in apple juice, app


  • Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium expansum
  • Rapid Determination of Patulin in Apple Juice
  • Inhibitory Effect of Propolis on Patulin Production of ...
  • Patulin in Fruit - Safe Food Alliance
  • Patulin in Apple Juices - cfs.gov.hk
  • Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium expansum

    Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Moststudies of patulin production have uti-lized isolates from apples. Patulin production possibly varies considerably among isolates from different hosts and widely separated re-gions. This study was done, therefore, to com-pare patulin production in vitro andin vivo by isolates from different fruit hosts and widely separated regions. An ...

    Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium expansum

    Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, ... More than 50% of apple juices samples analysed exceeded the maximum legal levels of patulin, according to researchers. Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin naturally found in fruits, including apples and its occurrence as a natural contaminant of fruit juices is indicative of fruit quality in production. This study examined the potential for patulin production in six different varieties of apples (Red Delicious, Golden Supreme, Gala, Fuji, Empire, and McIntosh) inoculated with Penicillium expansum spores and stored at two different temperatures (11 and 20.5°C). Samples for patulin analysis were randomly taken from apples stored at different times, ranging from 21 to 93 days.

    Production and migration of patulin in Penicillium ...

    Patulin production by 3 Penicillium expansum isolates (strains 3.72, 3.78 and 3.80) after 7 days growth on YES medium at 25 °C. Results are expressed in ng of patulin per g of dry mycelial weight. Penicillium expansum is the principal cause of blue mould rot and associated production of patulin, a weak mycotoxin, in apples worldwide.P. expansum growth and patulin production is observed during improper or long-term storage of apples. We have investigated the extent to which each successive step during long-term storage contributes to patulin production in various P. expansum isolates. The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and ...

    Patulin in Apples and Apple-Based Food Products: The ...

    Apples and apple-based products are among the most popular foods around the world for their delightful flavors and health benefits. However, the commonly found mold, Penicillium expansum invades wounded apples, causing the blue mold decay and ensuing the production of patulin, a mycotoxin that negatively affects human health. Patulin contamination in apple products has been a worldwide problem ... GC/MS of Native Patulin in Apple Juice and Cider Author Pat Sasso Agilent Technologies, Inc. Application Note Food Testing & Agriculture Abstract As growing seasons for apple production and the ability to export apples and apple This proficiency test is specifically for Patulin in clear apple juice and, where possible, uses naturally incurred test materials. Patulin is a specific mycotoxin produced by a number of moulds. It is most typically found within rotting apples. As such this can highlight the quality of apples used within production, and therefore provide a key ...

    Patulin - Food & Feed Analysis

    The patulin quantity detected in apple products is generally taken as a measured value for the quality of the apples used for the food production. Patulin can be contained in apple juice, apples sauce, apple puree, baby food and apple cider. Patulin is only considered to be a significant problem in apples and apple products, especially apple juice. For primary producers Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) measures designed to minimise insect and bird damage to apples can help to prevent mould infection and patulin production before harvest.

    Rapid Determination of Patulin in Apple Juice

    Of the fungi capable of producing patulin, penicillium expansum is probably the\ most commonly encountered specimen and is often isolated from decaying apples. The presence of residual patulin in apple juice serves as an indicator of the quality of fruit used in its production since an appreciable concentration of the mycotoxin rema\ ins in ... than in apples, however the latter tend to accumulate more patulin (12). The effect of pH was also evaluated in apples and patulin production increased from pH 2.5 to pH 3.5 and then remained constant until pH 5.5. Although pH influences patulin accumulation, other factors such as organic acid content

    Patulin Production in Apples Decayed by Penicillium ...

    Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by P. expansum will contain patulin which may present a ... Introduction. Patulin (Figure 1) is a mycotoxin produced by a number of fungal species.The mold Penicillium Expansum, in particular, is known as the main source of patulin contamination 1.Patulin occurrence is found most often in rotting apples and products made from spoiled apples. Included among these products is apple juice and apple puree 2. Annual world production of apples was about 45 million metric tons during 2002 to 2003. World apple production trends are given in Table 18.1. World pr oduction declined during the period mentioned for the second consecutive season due to lower production in both China and the U.S. These reduced production rates offset increased apple productio ...

    Lebensmittel: Patulin

    Daher wird Patulin meist in Obst und Gemüse gefunden, wobei besonders braunfaule Äpfel dieses Toxin enthalten können. Aber auch andere Lebensmittel wie Brot und Fleischprodukte bieten diesen Pilzen gute Wachstumsbedingungen und können daher Patulin enthalten. In etwa 40 % der braunfaulen Stellen von Äpfeln ist Patulin nachweisbar. Die ... Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by microscopic fungi belonging to the Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The natural occurrence of patulin in four apple products marketed in Italy and purchased from the supermarket, herbalist, and retail shops was studied. Thirty-three samples of the four products had no detectable patulin contamination. The 11 positive samples had a concentration ranging ...

    Patulin: a Mycotoxin in Apples - University of California ...

    Patulin has also become important to apple processors as a method for monitoring the quality of apple juices and concentrates. The presence of high amounts of patulin indicates that moldy apples were used in the production of the juices. For that reason the problem of detecting low levels of patulin in apple juices continues to receive ... Patulin Production by Penicillium expansum Isolated From Apples Batool, Fadhil and Sumaia 19 14 4 32 6 15 5.8 33 3.7 16 4.8 34 4.6 17 7.3 35 5.8 18 4.5 Table-3: Patulin production by P. expansum isolates compared with standard Patulin assayed by HPLC. This quality control material is specifically for Patulin in cloudy apple juice and, where possible, uses naturally incurred test materials. Patulin is a specific mycotoxin produced by a number of moulds. It is most typically found within rotting apples. As such this can highlight the quality of apples used within production, and therefore ...

    Patulin - A Chemical Concern For Apple Producers & Processors

    Patulin is a toxic chemical produced from a number of moulds such as Penicillium and Aspergillus. Although apples tend to be the major source, any mouldy or rotten fruit could contain this toxin. Patulin has been found to cause a range of health problems in laboratory animals. There is concern that similar effects may occur in humans, which is why exposure should be kept as low as practically ... Patulin can also be removed from apple juice by filtration, when patulin bound to solid particles of apple flesh are removed. Inactivation of Penicillium expansum spores during pasteurisation at Step 11 will reduce the risk of patulin production in the finished juice. Tasks 7 to 10: Development of a HACCP Plan

    Inhibitory Effect of Propolis on Patulin Production of ...

    In this research, reducing activity of Turkish propolis on patulin production of Penicillium expansum in apple juice was investigated. To compare the antifungal activity of propolis, sodium benzoate was also used as a positive control. Patulin producing molds are found on such fruits as peaches, pears, grapes and especially apples. Recent reports indicate that patulin can be found in some vegetables. By far the most common site of occurrence of patulin is in apples. Apples were found stored outside for extended periods without atmospheric or temperature controls in open, wooden bins; Such storage conditions increase the probability of patulin formation, thus ...

    Patulin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

    Patulin has mainly been found in apples and apple products and, occasionally in other fruits such as pears, apricots, peaches, and grapes, and it is mainly produced in rotten parts of the fruits (Cheraghali et al., 2005). Patulin has been found at levels tens to hundreds of üg/kg in tested apple samples. Patulin was primarily associated with core and areas of decomposing tissue and can penetrate up to approx. 1 cm of the surrounding healthy tissue. The production of patulin after the experimental contamination of apples was tested after 14 days of storage (21 ...

    Penicillium expansum: Consistent Production of Patulin ...

    Penicillium expansum is known for its destructive rot and patulin production in apple juice. According to the literature, P. expansum can, among other compounds, produce citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, penitrem A, and rubratoxin B. In this study the qualitative production of metabolites was examined using TLC (260 isolates), HPLC (85 isolates), and MS (22 isolates). The main natural mycotoxins produced in rotten apples were patulin and aflatoxins (Hasan, 2000). The presence of patulin in apples and derivatives on the Brazilian market has not been well studied yet. In the Southern region, where most of the apple production is concentrated, there are no exact data about the occurrence of toxins.

    Patulin in Fresh Fruits - Food Quality & Safety

    Most often associated with apples, apple products, and apple juices within the U.S., the FDA believes that producers can control patulin by removing spoiled, bruised, moldy, and visibly rotting fruit prior to production as these fruits have an increased risk of toxin formation. The highest patulin concentrations were attained at 16°C. However, a further increase in temperature to 25°C and 30°C caused a decrease in patulin production. These data matched a previous study of Paster et al. that compared patulin production on apples kept at various storage temperatures of 0, 3, 6, 17, and 25°C. In this study, the ...

    Patulin in Fruit - Safe Food Alliance

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several different genera of fungi, including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is most commonly associated with moldy apples, but patulin has been detected in pears, bananas, peaches, pineapple, blueberries, apricots, cherries and grapes. It has also been detected in Turkish figs, and studies have indicated a correlation between the Summary. In 2012 CVUA Stuttgart analyzed 36 samples of apple products (10 from organic production) for the presence of patulin. None of the 23 samples of apple juice (2 from organic production) were found with quantities of patulin exceeding the legal maximum residue limit (MRL). RUIYU ZHU, TING YU, SHUANGHUAN GUO, HAO HU, XIAODONG ZHENG, and PETR KARLOVSKY (2015) Effect of the Yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on Postharvest Decay and Patulin Accumulation in Apples and Pears.Journal of Food Protection: January 2015, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 157-163.

    Induction and Quantification of Patulin Production in ...

    Patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin, is primarily produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species during fruit spoilage. Patulin contamination is a great concern with regard to human health because exposure of the mycotoxin can result in severe acute and chronic toxicity, including neurotoxic, mutagenic, and immunotoxic effects. This guidance document represents the Agency's current thinking on its enforcement process concerning the adulteration of apple juice, apple juice concentrates, and apple juice products with patulin.

    Patulin in Apple Juices - cfs.gov.hk

    Patulin in Apple Juices. Reported by Ms. Janny MA, Scientific Officer Risk Assessment Section, Centre for Food Safety. In August 2017, the Centre for Food Safety (CFS) announced that a “Cold Pressed Apple & Strawberry” beverage sample imported from Australia was found to contain patulin at a level of 93 parts per billion (ppb), exceeding the action level of 50 ppb adopted by the CFS. Patulin Contamination in Apple Cider - Tools for Prevention The Issue of Blue Mold and Patulin. Apple rot is an issue regularly dealt with by apple growers in industry. Among the different types of rot, blue mold is well-known for its characteristic blue hue and tendency to infect wounded or punctured apples. Aside from quality defects, blue ... Production and occurrence. Patulin is produced by several fungi, most of which belong to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium.Patulin actually gets its name from the mold Penicillium patulinum.Since 1986, additional genera have been added to the potential list of patulin producers.

    Patulin in apple juice - Apple Best Practice Guide

    Patulin in apple juice. The processing market (juice, cider, purees, confectionary etc) represents a significant part of the overall market for apples in the UK, providing an outlet for both culinary and dessert fruit, it complements the market for fresh fruit. DOI: 10.3109/1040841X.2015.1009823 Biological control of patulin by antagonistic yeast 5 Critical Reviews in Microbiology Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by 180.118.104.172 on 04/07/15 For ...

    Patulin - Wikipedia

    Most commonly found in rotting apples, in general the amount of patulin in apple products is viewed as a measure of the quality of the apples used in production. In addition, patulin has been found in other foods such as grains, fruits, and vegetables. Its presence is highly regulated. Selective Extraction and Low Level Quantification of the Mycotoxin Patulin from Organic Apple Puree. By: K. G. Espenschied, Olga Shimelis, Michael Ye, Jennifer Claus, Reporter US Volume 33.2

    Patulin in Apples and Apple-Based Food Products: The ...

    challenges that affect patulin production and its removal from apples, as well as the emerging strategies in reducing pathogen infection and patulin contamination in apples from orchards to dining tables, with a focus on the work published in the last decade, with an aim of highlighting future prospective. 2. The Burdens of Patulin Accumulation ... Abstract. In this study, we investigated the pathogenicity and patulin production by ten strains of Penicillium expansum on various fruits (apples, apricots, kiwis, plums and peaches) at two (4°C and 25°C) different temperature regimes. All strains caused the infectious rots on all fruits at 4 and 25°C except one strain (PEX 09) at 4°C. Patulin Analysis: Sample Preparation Methodologies and Chromatographic Approaches 79 to the fungi ability to survive the heat treatments which are applied to food products (Sant Ana et al., 2008). Fungal strains which produce patulin have been isolated over the years from various fruits and vegetables. Although patulin can occur in se veral ...



    Apples and apple-based products are among the most popular foods around the world for their delightful flavors and health benefits. However, the commonly found mold, Penicillium expansum invades wounded apples, causing the blue mold decay and ensuing the production of patulin, a mycotoxin that negatively affects human health. Patulin contamination in apple products has been a worldwide problem . Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, the results indicate that apple products made partially from apples decayed by P. expansum will contain patulin which may present a . Patulin production by 3 Penicillium expansum isolates (strains 3.72, 3.78 and 3.80) after 7 days growth on YES medium at 25 °C. Results are expressed in ng of patulin per g of dry mycelial weight. Erdinger brewery tour tripadvisor san francisco. Sixty isolates of Penicillium expansum were tested for patulin production in decaying apples. All the isolates were found to produce the mycotoxin patulin as determined by thin-layer chromatography. Since patulin is known to be stable in many apple products, . challenges that affect patulin production and its removal from apples, as well as the emerging strategies in reducing pathogen infection and patulin contamination in apples from orchards to dining tables, with a focus on the work published in the last decade, with an aim of highlighting future prospective. 2. The Burdens of Patulin Accumulation . Patulin has also become important to apple processors as a method for monitoring the quality of apple juices and concentrates. The presence of high amounts of patulin indicates that moldy apples were used in the production of the juices. For that reason the problem of detecting low levels of patulin in apple juices continues to receive . Patulin in Apple Juices. Reported by Ms. Janny MA, Scientific Officer Risk Assessment Section, Centre for Food Safety. In August 2017, the Centre for Food Safety (CFS) announced that a “Cold Pressed Apple & Strawberry” beverage sample imported from Australia was found to contain patulin at a level of 93 parts per billion (ppb), exceeding the action level of 50 ppb adopted by the CFS. In this research, reducing activity of Turkish propolis on patulin production of Penicillium expansum in apple juice was investigated. To compare the antifungal activity of propolis, sodium benzoate was also used as a positive control. Monkey audio mac os. Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several different genera of fungi, including Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is most commonly associated with moldy apples, but patulin has been detected in pears, bananas, peaches, pineapple, blueberries, apricots, cherries and grapes. It has also been detected in Turkish figs, and studies have indicated a correlation between the Daher wird Patulin meist in Obst und Gemüse gefunden, wobei besonders braunfaule Äpfel dieses Toxin enthalten können. Aber auch andere Lebensmittel wie Brot und Fleischprodukte bieten diesen Pilzen gute Wachstumsbedingungen und können daher Patulin enthalten. In etwa 40 % der braunfaulen Stellen von Äpfeln ist Patulin nachweisbar. Die . Stay connected iphone wifi hotspot. Patulin has mainly been found in apples and apple products and, occasionally in other fruits such as pears, apricots, peaches, and grapes, and it is mainly produced in rotten parts of the fruits (Cheraghali et al., 2005).

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